Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Fertility

Healthcare systems around the world should be encouraged to make polycystic ovary syndrome a priority in women’s health checks

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 1 in 10 women worldwide and it is one of the most common reasons behind impaired fertility in women. PCOS impacts the female reproductive system by causing the ovaries to produce an abnormal amount of androgen levels, a group of hormones responsible for the growth and reproduction of women and men. Only a small amount of androgens is produced in women, which is why androgens are considered male hormones. PCOS is named after the accumulation of multiple small cysts in the ovaries. The hormonal imbalance causes ovulation failure, which prevents the small egg follicles from growing, resulting in cyst formation.

The first known case of PCOS was observed in 1721, but formal diagnostic criteria were not set until the early 1990s. In 2010, the World Health Organization estimated that PCOS affects 116 million women worldwide. Despite its high prevalence, the exact causes of the syndrome are still not fully understood. PCOS is a multifactorial disease, as it can be caused by genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors such as hereditary genetic changes, insulin resistance, increased levels of inflammation, stress, poor diet, nutrition, and environmental toxins.

The first symptoms of PCOS start appearing around puberty, at the time of the first menstrual period. The most common symptoms include irregular periods, i.e., inconsistent, absent, heavy, or painful periods, excess body hair, acne, and headaches. The majority of the symptoms are a result of hormone imbalance and higher levels of androgens. More than half of the women with PCOS experience no symptoms, apart from difficulty in conceiving. PCOS related weight gain is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, impaired glucose tolerance, cardiovascular diseases, and hypertension. PCOS also increases the risk of endometrial carcinoma.

PCOS is frequently mistaken for polycystic ovaries (PCO), which is a very common condition occurring in almost one-third of women of reproductive age. Even though these are related conditions with shared symptoms, such as irregular periods, acne, and weight gain, PCO is not considered a disorder, while PCOS is a metabolic disorder associated with hormonal imbalance. PCOS and PCO also vary in associated risks, incidence, and clinical management, with PCOS being more severe than PCO. In addition, PCO can be diagnosed with an ultrasound, whereas for PCOS diagnosis, additional blood tests are required to check hormone levels.

More and more studies are beginning to research the genes associated with PCOS. These genes can have a direct or indirect effect on women’s fertility, as they are associated with the ovaries and are involved in the production of reproductive hormones. Genetic testing can be performed to identify any changes in the genes known to be associated with PCOS, and consequently help with improving the classification of the syndrome and its phenotypes, as well as allowing for early interventions to reduce the PCOS-associated risks.

Although there is no cure for PCOS, the symptoms are manageable and treatable. Treatment will depend on various factors, such as the woman’s age and her exact symptoms, and mainly on whether the woman plans to become pregnant. Infertility treatment starts with lifestyle modifications, such as implementing a healthier diet and becoming more physically active. Even a minor weight loss can help improve the body’s ability to regulate insulin and subsequently improve ovulation. It can also help increase the efficiency of any other medication, such as ovulation induction drugs, to help the ovaries release eggs. For women not planning a pregnancy in the immediate future, birth control pills can decrease androgen levels and treat various symptoms, such as irregular menstruation, excessive hair growth and acne. Diabetes medication can be used to treat high insulin resistance.

Increasing awareness about PCOS can promote the need for timely diagnosis and improve treatment and prognosis for affected women. Governments and healthcare systems around the world should be encouraged to make PCOS a priority in women’s health checks, understand the struggles and improve the quality of life for women and girls with PCOS.

Rodinia infertility test female panel, offered by NIPD Genetics, can detect mutations that cause polycystic ovary syndrome along with many other conditions. To learn more, please visit http://www.nipd.com/rodinia. Possible next steps and clinical management should always be discussed with your doctor.

The content of this article is intended only for informational purposes and should not be perceived as medical advice.

The scientific references used to compose this article can be found here:

Deswal, R., Narwal, V., Dang, A., & Pundir, C. S. (2020). The Prevalence of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Brief Systematic Review. Journal of human reproductive sciences, 13(4), 261–271. https://doi.org/10.4103/jhrs.JHRS_95_18

Prapas, N., Karkanaki, A., Prapas, I., Kalogiannidis, I., Katsikis, I., & Panidis, D. (2009). Genetics of polycystic ovary syndrome. Hippokratia, 13(4), 216–223.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). (n.d.). Johns Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved September 2021, from https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos#:%7E:text=Polycystic%20ovary%20syndrome%20(PCOS)%20is,that%20form%20in%20the%20ovaries

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) - Symptoms and causes. (2020, October 3). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved September 2021, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pcos/symptoms-causes/syc-20353439

NHS website. (2021, August 17). Polycystic ovary syndrome. Nhs.Uk. Retrieved September 2021, from https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos/

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). (2017, April 21). WebMD. Retrieved September 2021, from https://www.webmd.com/women/what-is-pcos

Polycystic ovary syndrome | Office on Women’s Health. (2019, April 1). OASH. Retrieved September 2021, from https://www.womenshealth.gov/a-z-topics/polycystic-ovary-syndrome

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NIPD Genetics - Privacy Policy

General Statement

NIPD Genetics is a leading, innovative biotechnology company that designs, develops, and provides a broad spectrum of healthcare services to its customers through its expansive portfolio of molecular and clinical laboratory tests in all disciplines.

At NIPD Genetics we are committed to protecting and respecting our customer’s privacy and personal information. Personal information or personal data means any information that identifies, relates to, describes, is capable of being associated with, or could be reasonably linked, directly or indirectly, with a particular individual, such as name, identification number, location data, an online identifier or to one or more factors specific to the physical, physiological, genetic, mental, economic, cultural or social identity of that individual.

NIPD Genetics collects and processes your personal information according to the General Data Protection Regulation (EU) 2016/679 and the Cypriot law providing for the protection of natural persons with regards to the processing of personal data and for the free movement of such data (L. 125(I)/2018). The following principles lie at the heart of our approach to handling personal data:

NIPD Genetics has appointed a Data Protection Officer (DPO) who is responsible for overseeing and ensuring that personal information is collected and processed in line with these principles. The contact details of the Data Protection Officer (DPO) can be found below:

Email address: dpo@nipd.com

Postal address: 31 Neas Engomis street, 2409 Engomi, Nicosia, Cyprus

Telephone number: + 357 22266888

By accessing or using our products or services, or by transmitting information to us by email or other electronic means, you accept our policies, procedures and practices described in this Privacy Policy. If you do not agree with our policies, procedures and practices as described, you can choose not to access or use our products or services or not to transmit personal information to us.

This Privacy Policy applies to NIPD Genetics facilities, its websites www.nipd.com, www.nipdlabs.com, www.nipdlabs.com.cy and their subdomains, that link to this privacy pol icy.


We collect and process several types of personal information from and about users of our websites and of our products and services, including:

Information about children

If you are under 18 years of age, do not register on our website or provide any information about yourself to us. We do not provide our products or services directly to children or proactively collect their personal information. Despite this prohibition, it is possible that we may sometimes be given information about children while handling samples from our customers in our clinical labs, or through use of our products and services by our customers and partners. If we become aware that we have inadvertently collected personal information from children under the age of 18, without parental consent, we will take the necessary steps to delete it as soon as possible in compliance with applicable laws.


Your personal information is collected by NIPD Genetics for the following purposes:

  1. To provide you with our products and services, respond to your inquiries or fulfill your requests and otherwise manage your relationship with us. The legal basis for processing is to meet the requirements of a contract, to comply with our legal obligations and/or because we have a legitimate interest in responding to requests for information about our products and services.
  2. To communicate with you about content and product offerings, newsletters and event invitations which are relevant to your interests and in line with your preferences. The legal basis for processing is the individual’s explicit consent prior to sending the information and managing individuals preferences.
  3. To process and respond to complaints. The legal basis for processing is to meet a legal obligation.
  4. To monitor and record information relating to the use of our products and services, including our website. The legal basis for processing is our legitimate interest in order to improve our products and services and our website for individuals.

To provide our products and services, NIPD Genetics may collect, receive and process biological samples to isolate and sequence DNA. NIPD Genetics may then store resulting genetic information and use genetic information to provide our products and services. In some cases, NIPD Genetics may provide interpretations of genetic information on behalf of its customers, including healthcare providers. This is only done pursuant to a written contract or a Sample Information Form with a patient’s informed consent and is subject to applicable legal and ethical safeguards.

This sensitive information described above is collected by NIPD Genetics for the following purposes:

  1. To provide support and maintenance services to customers who use our products and services – The legal basis for processing is to meet the requirements of a contract.
  2. To provide genotyping and sequencing services and analysis for our customers, including healthcare providers. The legal basis of this processing is to meet the requirements of a contract or as allowed in the Sample Information Form with a patient’s informed consent.
  3. To conduct genotyping and sequencing services and analysis for quality control, process and product development and improvements, and optimization in our labs to reflect quality improvements and advances in our technology. The legal basis for processing is the patient’s informed consent given through the Sample Information Form.

Transfer of Data

Your information, including personal data, may be transferred to - and maintained on - computers located outside your province, country or other governmental jurisdiction where the data protection laws may differ than those from your jurisdiction.

If you are located outside Cyprus and choose to provide information to us, please note that we transfer the data, including personal data, to Cyprus and process it there.

Your consent to this Privacy Policy followed by your submission of such information represents your agreement to that transfer.

NIPD Genetics will take all reasonable steps necessary to ensure that your data is treated securely and in accordance with this Privacy Policy and no transfer of your personal information will take place to an organization or a country unless there are adequate controls in place including the security of your data and other personal information.

Disclosure of Data

NIPD Genetics complies with the General Data Protection Regulation and will not sell or trade your personal information.

NIPD Genetics may disclose your personal information in the good faith that such action is necessary:


Cookies are files with small amount of data which may include an anonymous unique identifiers. Cookies are sent to your browser when you visit a website and stored on your device. Tracking technologies used on the website are beacons, tags and scripts, to collect and track information and to improve and analyze our websites.

We use cookies and similar tracking technologies to track the activity on our websites and collect certain information. This includes information about the computer or device you are using, such as Internet protocol (IP) address, information about the browser type or version, the pages of our website that you visit, the time and date of your visit, the time spent on those pages, unique device identifiers and other diagnostic data.

You can instruct your browser to refuse all cookies or to indicate when a cookie is being sent. However, if you do not accept cookies, you may not be able to use some portions of our websites.

Examples of Cookies we may use:

Session Cookies. We use Session Cookies to operate our websites.

Preference Cookies. We use Preference Cookies to remember your preferences and various settings.

Security Cookies. We use Security Cookies for security purposes.

Visitor behavior cookies. To understand how visitors use and navigate the websites

Keyword cookies. To understand how visitors discover the websites.


We may use third-party Service Providers to monitor and analyze the use of our websites.

Google Analytics

Google Analytics is a web analytics service offered by Google that tracks and reports website traffic. Google uses the data collected to track and monitor the use of our service. This data is shared with other Google services. Google may use the collected data to contextualize and personalize the ads of its own advertising network.

You can opt-out of having made your activity on the Service available to Google Analytics by installing the Google Analytics opt-out browser add-on. The add-on prevents the Google Analytics JavaScript (ga.js, analytics.js, and dc.js) from sharing information with Google Analytics about visits activity.

For more information on the privacy practices of Google, please visit the Google Privacy & Terms web page


We are committed to protecting the security of the information we collect, and we take reasonable physical, technical, and administrative safeguards such as data anonymization and encryption to help protect personal information from unauthorized or inappropriate access or use. It is your responsibility to protect the confidentiality of your passwords, and any other access features associated with your access or use of the website or our products and services, as well as to adhere to any applicable Terms of Use or other contract between us and you or your organization.


We may retain collected information even after you remove it from the website, our Services, or our Products, to comply with applicable law, to resolve disputes, to enforce any rights in connection with the website, our Services, or our Products, and to use as provided in this Privacy Policy, the Terms of Use, or an applicable contract between us and you or your organization. How long we retain specific personal information varies depending on the purpose for its use and we may delete or retain your personal information in accordance with applicable law.


We may employ third party companies and individuals to facilitate, maintain or operate our websites (“Service Providers”), to provide the websites on our behalf, to perform service-related services or to assist us in analyzing how our websites are used.

These third parties have access to your Personal Data only to perform these tasks on our behalf and are obligated not to disclose or use it for any other purpose.


Our websites may contain links to other sites that are not operated by us. If you click on a third-party link, you will be directed to that third party's site. We strongly advise you to review the Privacy Policy of every site you visit.

We have no control over and assume no responsibility for the content, privacy policies or practices of any third-party sites or services.


This Privacy Policy may be updated from time to time. We will notify you of any changes by posting the new Privacy Policy on this page.

We will let you know via email and/or a prominent notice on our website, prior to the change becoming effective and update the “effective date” at the bottom of this Privacy Policy.

You are advised to review this Privacy Policy periodically for any changes. Changes to this Privacy Policy are effective when they are posted on this page.


NIPD Genetics ensures that it can respond immediately to requests that you make for the exercise of your legal rights in accordance with data protection laws. These rights are as follows:

You also have the right to lodge a complaint at any time to the Office of the Commissioner for Personal Data Protection.

We encourage you to contact us, should you wish to practice any of your legal rights or you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, by sending an email to NIPD Genetics’ Data Protection Officer at dpo@nipd.com.

Effective date: 18/06/2021

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